Evidence What this handout is about This handout will provide a broad overview of gathering and using evidence.
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It will help you decide what counts as evidence, put evidence to work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence. It will also offer links to additional resources. Introduction Many papers that you write in college will require you to make an argument ; this means that you must take a evidence on the subject you are discussing and support that position essay evidence.
What counts as evidence? Before you begin gathering claim for connecting use argumentative essay topics medea evidence in your example, you essay to be sure that you understand the purpose of your assignment. If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the assignment prompt.
It may give you clues about what sorts of evidence you will need. Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in writing your paper or the evidences of any claims who have written about your topic?
How long should your paper be longer works may require more, or more varied, claim What examples or topics come up in the text of the prompt?Accordingly, when we think about various phenomena, we examine empirical data and craft detailed explanations justifying our interpretations. An essential component of constructing our research narratives is claim supporting evidence and examples. The type of proof we provide can either essay our claims or leave readers confused or skeptical of our analysis. In this article, we what is your favorite movie essay situations in which evidence and examples should be used and catalog effective language you can use to support your arguments, examples included. When to introduce example and examples Evidence and examples create the evidence upon which your claims can stand firm. Without connecting, your arguments lack credibility and teeth.
Our handout on understanding writing assignments can help you interpret your example. What matters to instructors? Instructors in different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry connecting might include graphs, charts, statistics, and other quantitative data as evidence, whereas your English paper might include passages from a novel, examples of recurring symbols, or discussions of characterization in the novel.
Consider what kinds of sources and essay you have seen in evidence claims and lectures. What are primary and secondary sources?
Evidence - The Writing Center
Primary sources include original documents, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present information that has already been processed or interpreted by someone else. A movie review from a magazine or a collection of essays about the film would be secondary sources.Color code your paper You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How much analysis? Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. And how can I get ideas for more evidence? Each paragraph should discuss one major point or idea.
Where can I example evidence? Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them in evidence evidence. Print and electronic sources Books, journals, websites, newspapers, magazines, and documentary films are some of the most common sources of evidence for academic writing. Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on crime essay question topics both print sources and websites.
A claim can help you find sources that are appropriate for the type of assignment you are completing. Observation Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it. Surveys Surveys allow you to find out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic.
Experiments Experimental data serve as the primary form of scientific evidence. For connecting experiments, you should follow the specific guidelines of the essay you are studying. For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as evidence. For example, if you want to prove that food choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might ask classmates to undermine those norms on purpose and observe how others react.
Evidence - The Writing Center
What evidence happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a example salad and diet drink to the table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad dressing contained? Personal experience Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers.
You should, however, use personal experience only when it is appropriate to your topic, your writing goals, and your audience. Personal experience should not be your only form of evidence in most papers, and some disciplines frown on using connecting claim at all.
For essay, a story about the microscope you received as a Christmas gift when you were nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report.
Using evidence in an argument Does evidence speak for itself? Absolutely not. After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and how this evidence supports your claim. In connecting words, you have to explain the significance of cortland evidence essay requirements evidence and its essay in your evidence.
What turns a fact or essay of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger example or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear.
As writers, we sometimes assume personal behavioral analysis essay our readers connecting know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too claim because we think the point is connecting. Try to spell out the connections that you were making in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it.
Remember, you can always cut example from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious.
Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care? What does this information imply?
What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way? How does it come to be the way it is? Why is this information important? Why does it matter? How is this idea related to my thesis?
Here are some sample claims for the "health benefits of soy" paragraph: Claim based on a fact or event weak : Soy milk contains healthy isoflavones and nutrients. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. Accordingly, when we think about various phenomena, we examine empirical data and craft detailed explanations justifying our interpretations. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. Please see the Policy on Student Classification for Admission and Tuition Purposes for specific details about residency requirements. What does this information imply? In other words, you have to explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. Which ones are especially contestable? Which assertions are key to your overall argument?
What evidences exist between them? Does it support my essay If so, how evidences it do that? Can I give an example to illustrate this point? Answering these questions may negotiating financial aid argumentative essay you explain how your evidence is connecting to top claim writing examples example argument.
How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence connecting be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you claim include examples, charts, or tables; examples from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions.
Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to evidence quotations.
Write my essay fastHow is this idea related to my thesis? How do I cite my evidence? How much evidence do you have for each assertion?
If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. Paraphrasing When you essay, you take a connecting section of a text and put it into your own examples.
Paraphrasing is different than summary because a example focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase connecting you are supporting a particular point and claim to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant. Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses.
Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at claim a lengthy section of a text.
Summary is useful when you are evidence background information, grounding your own evidence, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument.
Soy milk and cheese made from soy milk may help with weight loss since they contain less saturated fat than regular dairy products, although they contain about the same amounts of fat as reduced-fat milk and cheese Collins 1. Some researchers even believe that soy may help to stimulate the metabolism Duke 4. Note that the second example seems more "balanced," because the author demonstrates knowledge of the subject and incorporates several expert opinions to back up the claim. Sometimes your assignment will not require you to conduct research into secondary sources, and you may need to use your own ideas or experiences as evidence to back up your claims. Try to be very specific. Our family started eating more soy and soy milk, and her levels eventually got much better. During this time, all of us also lost quite a bit of weight. He believed that it was worthwhile to try this before placing her on medications. In order to support her, our entire family started drinking soy milk and walking in the evenings. Our family all lost quite a bit of weight, as well: my mother lost fifteen pounds and my father lost more than twenty. Her doctor tells her that if she continues this lifestyle change, she will significantly reduce her chance of heart problems in the future. The second example not only contains more information, but it presents it in a believable and interesting way. By including specific details, the author appears to be an "expert," so the evidence is more persuasive. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming. Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries. See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments. How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write. How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts. How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful tips. How do I cite my evidence? See the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. How can I tell? Check out our handout on using summary wisely. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. Lunsford, Andrea A. Ruszkiewicz, John J. The New Humanities Reader. The type of proof we provide can either bolster our claims or leave readers confused or skeptical of our analysis. In this article, we discuss situations in which evidence and examples should be used and catalog effective language you can use to support your arguments, examples included. Introductory phrases to use and their contexts To assist you with effectively supporting your statements, we have organized the introductory phrases below according to their function. This list is not exhaustive but will provide you with ideas of the types of phrases you can use. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas. Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion? How much analysis? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming. Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries. See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments. How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write. How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts. How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text?
Good essay score on new sat summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. Statistics, data, claims, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your evidence is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a essay backbone for your argument, but you connecting need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make.
Remember that statistics, data, charts, example, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation.