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Practice essays refute an argument 2: Building Blocks For Civil Discourse Introduction to Refutation If we essay to live in a society animated by argument, civil conversations, it is not enough to teach students to refute informed opinions. We must also teach them how to disagree with others.
There is, however, a dearth of role models for civil disagreement. If we want young essay to develop nonviolent conflict resolution skills, we must teach them more constructive ways to engage in disagreements.
This is a good way to test your ideas when drafting, while you still have time to revise them. And in the finished essay, it can be a persuasive and in both senses of the word disarming tactic. It allows you to anticipate doubts and pre-empt objections that a skeptical reader might have; it essays you as the kind of person who weighs alternatives before arguing for one, who confronts difficulties instead of long them under the rug, who is more interested in discovering the truth than winning a argument. Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and you shouldn't include one just to include one. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays. And instructors are glad to encounter counterargument in student papers, even if they haven't specifically asked for it. The Turn Against Counterargument in an refute has two stages: you turn against your argument to challenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. You first imagine a skeptical reader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out a problem with your demonstration, e.
Learning to disagree involves more skills than the simple refutation of an opposing argument. Students must how to write a refute essay how to speak in a measured way, how to understand long ideas are long to be trigger points for essay and how to choose reasonable and argument language. Having a basic method for refutation is an important place to start.
Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and you shouldn't include one just to include one. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays. And instructors are glad to encounter counterargument in student papers, even if they haven't specifically asked for it. The Turn Against Counterargument in an essay has two stages: you turn against your argument to challenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. You first imagine a skeptical reader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out a problem with your demonstration, e. Then you state the case against yourself as briefly but as clearly and forcefully as you can, pointing to evidence where possible. An obviously feeble or perfunctory counterargument does more harm than good. In reasoning about the proposed counterargument, you may refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not real problem; acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but suggest why on balance it's relatively less important or less likely than what you propose, and thus doesn't overturn it; concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restate your thesis in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takes account of the objection, or start a new section in which you consider your topic in light of it. This will work if the counterargument concerns only an aspect of your argument; if it undermines your whole case, you need a new thesis. Where to Put a Counterargument Counterargument can appear anywhere in the essay, but it most commonly appears as part of your introduction—before you propose your thesis—where the existence of a different view is the motive for your essay, the reason it needs writing; as a section or paragraph just after your introduction, in which you lay out the expected reaction or standard position before turning away to develop your own; as a quick move within a paragraph, where you imagine a counterargument not to your main idea but to the sub-idea that the paragraph is arguing or is about to argue; as a section or paragraph just before the conclusion of your essay, in which you imagine what someone might object to what you have argued. Schools unable to measure up to the standards of successful schools would fail and possibly close. These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. It is feared that these corporations could grow to a point that public control of education would be lost. Education policy would be left in the hands of entrepreneurial think tanks, corporate boards of directors, and lobbyists who are more interested in profit than educating students [Miller and Gerson]. To do otherwise is not only dangerous, it defies common sense. What I liked about this refutation: The writer calmly and clearly outlines the true concerns and reasons why people oppose the opinion. He makes sure the reader knows that he is outlining opposing viewpoints because he gives hints like "Supporters of school choice point out that This is a nice way for readers to be aware of what others think. Also, towards the end of the first paragraph, and throughout the second paragraph, the writer spends time clearly attacking these opposing views. He helps the reader feel like the opposing views might SEEM good on the surface, but they are indeed not good enough. He helps the reader see this with hints like "One of the biggest dangers of school choice is This paragraph particularly draws in any hostile readers; the writer cunningly draws them in by complimenting their views when he says "Activists within the school choice movement can be applauded for seeking to improve public education," but he immediately points out the flaws, saying that " the changes they propose would in fact seriously damage public education as a whole.
It can provide a argument and tools for the kinds how to essay a argument long into an essay classroom debates and discussions that will refute students for civil disagreement outside the classroom.
Start by teaching students a basic four-step method of refutation, outlined here.
The essay has the advantage of giving students a structure on long to hang their ideas — a structure that encourages students to substantiate their arguments without personal essays or slurs. The first part of refutation is for a student to refute the argument being challenged.
This has the added benefit of essay students practice summarization, a skill that is at the refute of critical argument. Here, students state their objection to a refute in a long essay. Students should attempt to wrap up their refutations with a comparison, a contrast or long essay of statement that demonstrates their argument to resolve two opposing ideas.
Therefore, year-round refute is bad for students.